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The Science of Gemstones

Updated: Oct 27, 2023

The Science of Gemstones | Lee David Diamonds gemstones(ruby, emerald, opal, amethyst, topaz, sapphire, pearl, quartz, garnet,turquoise, corundum, periodt, lapis lazuli, tanzanite, alexandrite, beryl, aquamarine, citrine, spinel, moonstone)

Gemstones are beautiful and precious stones that have been prized by people for centuries. But what exactly are gemstones, and how are they formed?

What are Gemstones?

Gemstones are minerals that are considered to be rare and beautiful. They are typically cut and polished to enhance their appearance. Gemstones can be found in a variety of colors, including clear, white, yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, blue, green, brown, and black.

How are Gemstones Formed?

Gemstones are formed through a variety of geological processes. Some gemstones are formed from molten magma, while others are formed from sedimentary rocks or metamorphic rocks. Gemstones can also be formed by the action of heat and pressure on existing minerals.

The Different Types of Gemstones

There are many different types of gemstones, each with its own unique properties. Some of the most popular gemstones include:

Diamonds: Diamonds are the hardest natural substance on Earth. They are formed from carbon under high pressure and temperature.

Diamond | Lee David Diamonds

Rubies: Rubies are a type of corundum that is red in color. They are formed from aluminum oxide with trace amounts of chromium.

Ruby | Lee David Diamonds

Sapphires: Sapphires are another type of corundum that can be found in a variety of colors, including blue, green, yellow, and pink. They are formed from aluminum oxide with trace amounts of iron or titanium.

Sapphire | Lee David Diamonds

Emeralds: Emeralds are a type of beryl that is green in color. They are formed from beryllium aluminum silicate with trace amounts of chromium.

Emerald | Lee David Diamonds

Pearls: Pearls are formed by mollusks, such as oysters and mussels. They are formed when a foreign object, such as a grain of sand, enters the mollusk's shell.

Pearls | Lee David Diamonds

Gemstone Properties

Gemstones have a variety of different properties, including:

  • Hardness: The hardness of a gemstone is measured on the Mohs scale, which is a scale of 1 to 10. Diamonds are the hardest gemstone, with a hardness of 10.

  • Color: The color of a gemstone is determined by the presence of impurities in the crystal. For example, rubies are red due to the presence of chromium impurities.

  • Clarity: The clarity of a gemstone is a measure of how free it is from flaws, such as inclusions and cracks.

  • Cut: The cut of a gemstone is the shape and facets that are given to the stone. The cut of a gemstone can have a significant impact on its appearance.

Gemstone Uses

Gemstones are used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Jewellery: Gemstones are often used in jewellery, such as necklaces, earrings, bracelets, and rings.

  • Collectibles: Gemstones can also be collected for their beauty and rarity.

  • Industrial uses: Gemstones are also used in a variety of industrial applications, such as cutting tools and lasers.


Gemstones are fascinating and beautiful creations of nature. They are formed through a variety of geological processes and have a wide range of different properties. Gemstones are used for a variety of purposes, including jewellery, collectibles, and industrial applications.

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